Learning & Resources


Educational Links:

For an overview of the First World War and the Battle of Passchendaele visit http://passchendaelesociety.org/links/passchendaele-in-the-context-of-the-first-world-war/

The Passchendaele Offensive details the involvement of New Zealand’s soldiers during their time in Belgium, click on the following link http://passchendaelesociety.org/links/battles/

Blood and Mud: An additional excellent educational resource has been created for use in schools, teachers have our full permission to use this website: https://bloodandmud.org/ The Passchendaele Society has obtained the rights to the website and we continue to improve and enhance. The website was originally created by a team comprising of Dylan Woodhouse, Tony Wu, Lucy Tustin and Connor Harrigen from St Paul’s Collegiate in Hamilton who went on to be joint winners of the Passchendaele Centennial Competition for New Zealand Schools (2017). Schools, teachers and students are invited to utilize this resource by linking it with other areas in the social sciences curriculum to answer questions such as “Examine how a significant historical event affected New Zealand society” from a recent New Zealand Qualifications Authority, Level 2 History paper.

The following overview called Lessons of Passchendaele was written by Greg Hall, click on the following link http://passchendaelesociety.org/links/learnings-from-passchendaele

The objectives of the Passchendaele Society our outlined further on the following Passchendaele in Schools page http://passchendaelesociety.org/links/passchendaele-in-schools/

As part of a school project a Year 13 student by the name of Dylan Woodhouse created a video called: Stand To that tells the story of Roy Cunliffe, an ordinary soldier from Wellington. Dylan then had the wonderful experience of looking for this soldier’s final resting spot in Polygon Wood British Cemetery, Flanders, Belgium. He also planted a tree in the Wood of Peace in his memory. “I found it very satisfying to trial this resource with Year 9 students and dispel some of the myths surrounding World War 1 and help enthuse them to adopt an ANZAC and learn their story. By getting our young people to look at the life of a randomly chosen ANZAC, they quickly learned that all those that died in the war were more than figures and statistics, they left widowed wives and broken communities”. You can see his  project on Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/399232890220175/videos/1408829229260531 

In fact the Passchendaele Society’s Facebook page is a wonderful source of information! Please visit:  https://www.facebook.com/Passchendaele-Society-399232890220175/  and Like and Follow our page.



Other useful links:

For an understanding of the politics and the battles of the First World War go to New Zealand History online Nga korero a ipurangi o Aotearoa and Te Ara The Encyclopedia of New Zealand.

Many of the World War One Official Campaign Histories can be found on-line at New Zealand Electronic Text Centre

Memorial Museum Passchendaele 1917  On this website, you can find information on this Belgium museum, the Tyne Cot Cemetery, exploring the Flanders battlefields, an educational package for schools, the research project – “The Passchendaele Archives”

The In Flanders Fields Museum 1917 https://www.flandersfields.be/en/1917/flanders-fields-museum presents the story of the First World War in the West Flanders front region.It is located in the renovated Cloth Halls of Ypres, the website includes educational activities, research centre and casualty lists. An interesting blog to follow is: The Belgians have not forgotten100 NZ WW1 Memorials 1914-2014

IMAGES of the First World War can be found in TimeframesPhotos of the Great War . The Heritage Images Online database contains the Herman John Schmidt photographic collection which contains 4,500 plate negatives from the First World War Soldier Portrait series .

VIDEO of the First World War can be found on You Tube.  In particular this four part series with unique footage showing the conditions our boys fought in. World War One Battle of Passchendaele Part one; Part Two; Part Three; Part Four

The best place to start if you are trying to find a relative who may have served in the First World War is to check out the Auckland War Memorial Museum’s Cenotaph database. The database has over 115,000 New Zealand service men and women and covers the whole of the 19th century and especially the World Wars, One and Two. Entries will give you information of the Military Unit, rank, when they left for overseas, their enlistment address and next of kin. If they died the date, place and cause of death will be listed.

The Commonwealth War Graves Commission has a register that records details of Commonwealth war dead so that graves or memorials can be located. Their entries give date of death, age, Regiment, the memorial or grave site – there is often a photograph of the cemetery or memorial. There can be additional information for example the name and address of the next of kin.

Once you have found your relative you can apply to Archives New Zealand to have their Military Personnel record digitised and downloaded to the Archway database. There may be a charge for this service. The records usually give full details of their  war history including their medical records and a physical description. Archives also provide access to a selection of  “Fatal Casualty Forms (AABK 519)”  for nearly 700 New Zealand military personnel who died in the Ypres-Passchendaele sector (Flanders, Belgium) during 1917 and early 1918. archives.govt.nz/passchendaele-casualty-forms ?

Gradually old newspapers are being scanned and added to the Papers Past database – the Auckland Star now covers the First World War period and provides a fascinating insight into how the First World War was perceived at the time, the casualty lists are heart-breaking.

Reading List:

The following recommended Reading List Library has been compiled by Dylan Woodhouse – Passchendaele Society Board Member for the Passchendaele Society’s Facebook site https://www.facebook.com/ThePasschendaeleSociety/ :

Book 1: ‘New Zealand and the First World War’ by Damien Fenton

I’ve got a copy of this book and would highly recommend it! There’s a variety of chapters covering the whole war, the home front and specifically Passchendaele. Accompanied with gorgeous illustrations and fold out maps and pamphlets, it goes into great detail about all the battles, tactics and weaponry used in the Great War and is a great resource for all the family. This book was put together specifically for the centenary by a great Kiwi author and deserves a place in your collection.


Book 2: ‘All Quiet on the Western Front’ by Erich Maria Remarque

One of, if not the most famous novel about World War 1. Wrote by a German veteran, it outlines the true horror and humanity of the Great War. His words are so full of sorrow but so beautiful, it is truly a must read for anyone interested in the Great War. Remarque was German but despite the fact he fought on the other side of the war, for the Central Powers, it is humbling to see how many of his experiences were shared by his British, French, Australian and New Zealand counterparts. This book helps break one of the popular myths of the war, that the Germans were the villains. Without World War 2 as context, it is easy to see these men for what they truly were, people caught up in one of the most horrific situations imaginable, it didn’t matter what badge they wore over their hearts, but what lay within them.

“But now, for the first time, I see you are a man like me. I thought of your hand-grenades, of your bayonet, of your rifle; now I see your wife and your face and our fellowship. Forgive me, comrade. We always see it too late. Why do they never tell us that you are poor devils like us, that your mothers are just as anxious as ours, and that we have the same fear of death, and the same dying and the same agony–Forgive me, comrade; how could you be my enemy?” -Erich Maria Remarque


Book 3: ‘Passchendaele The Sacrificial ground’ by Nigel Steel and Peter Hart

Including quotes and excerpts from the diaries of regular soldiers to Haig’s own memoirs, this book is incredibly comprehensive. It covers the developments of the battle in extraordinary depth. Maps detail the movements of troops and artillery barrages and anecdotes from soldiers detail a bit about what life was like there and how they responded to the motions of the battle. it has been highly praised, Field Marshal Lord Carver said that, “Few have painted as vivid and detailed a picture of what the Third Battle of Ypres [Passchendaele] was like as this book.” This coming from a second World War commander and a man with a list of titles and awards longer than this post. One of the most fascinating parts of the book is the detonation of the explosives placed by sappers a year prior to the battle, the countdown is cleverly put together by quoting the various Australian and British Captains as they prepare to detonate the explosion which was heard as far away as London and Dublin.

“Three minutes to go, two minutes to go One Minute to go!”
-Captain Oliver Woodward 1st Australian Tunneling Company, Australian Engineers

“45 seconds, 30 seconds, 15 seconds 10 seconds, 5 seconds, 4, 3, 2, 1 GO!”
-Sapper Roll, 1st Australian Tunneling Company, Australian Engineers

“It was a white incandescent light we knew that the temperature was about 3000 degrees centigrade. The Germans there went up as gas.”
-Lieutenant Bryan Frayling, 171st Tunneling Company, Royal Engineers.

This section of the book talked about an incredible undertaking that was many months in the making and involved the sappers digging under ground underneath a massive German force and planting tonnes of explosives. The Sappers literally wore slippers in the mines to keep quiet and had respirators due to the carbon monoxide. If you want to know more about this incredible plan, Dan Carlin’s third Blueprint for Armageddon episode includes it and this book covers it in the greatest detail of any source.


Book 4: ‘Massacre at Passchendaele‘ by Glyn Harper

A book by one of our members and official historian: Glyn Harper.

Harper wrote this book in response to the lack of material on Passchendaele by New Zealanders, about New Zealanders. He extensively uses extracts and memoirs to illustrate the background and the full extent of the battle. Lieutenant Colonel Glyn Harper is the New Zealand Army’s Military Studies Institute Commanding officer. He’s also the official historian of the New Zealand Army. With this in mind you can see why he places emphasis all through the ranks and branches of service and examines Kiwi soldiers in particular. In his opinion, which I heartily agree with, “No British, Australian, or Canadian chronicle of the war would be complete without an account of what took place here. For even more than the Somme, Passchendaele symbolises the futility of trench warfare.”

That is the true tragedy of Passchendaele, it was another bloody chapter in the trench warfare narrative, yet at the time, no one was able to see the futility of it unless they were waist deep in the mud fighting for survival. I’d highly recommend you give this one a read, it is solely focused on New Zealand’s part in the battle and does the men that fought there some real justice. After all, while it was a tragedy, Gallipoli was not a patch on Passchendaele, yet why do we as a nation choose remember it instead?

“For New Zealand. Passchendaele deserves to be, and should become, as Sergeant Wilson believed it would back in October 1917, an experience ‘that will long be remembered by New Zealanders.’ This book aims to tell the story of this New Zealand tragedy.”


Book 5: ‘ANZAC Ted’ by Belinda Landsberry

One for the young uns – this book comes recommended by Sharon Crawford at Rototuna Primary School library! This book is a perfect way to introduce young children to the Great War. The story uses rhyme to deliver its message which will appeal to children. Anzac Ted is a battered, old bear, who has seen better days. He belongs to a little boy who takes him to school for a ‘show ‘n’ tell’ day and none of the children liked him, as he was old and scary looking. If only the children could see beyond Anzac Ted’s physical appearance…The story behind Anzac Ted delves into the lives of the little boy’s Poppa, who fought in the war, and Anzac Ted was there with him. He became the regiment’s mascot and he brought comfort and inspired bravery around him, although Anzac Ted, ‘Never saw a medal, but some heroes never do. And we don’t see just how we’d be without our Anzac crew.’ Anzac Ted now sits proudly on the little boy’s bed-a hero to his family.


Book 6: ‘The Other Anzacs’ by Peter Rees

“By the end of The Great War, 45 Australian and New Zealand nurses had died in overseas service and more than 200 had been decorated. These were women who left for war on an adventure, but were soon confronted with remarkable challenges for which their civilian lives could never have prepared them. They were there for the horrors of Gallipoli and they were there for the savagery the Western Front. Within 12 hours of the slaughter at Anzac Cove they had more than 500 horrifically injured patients to tend on one crammed hospital ship, and scores of deaths on each of the harrowing days that followed. Every night was a nightmare. Their strength and humanity were remarkable. Using diaries and letters, Peter Rees takes us into the hospital camps, wards, and tent surgeries on the edge of some of the most horrific battlefronts of human history. But he also allows the friendships and loves of these courageous and compassionate women to enrich their experiences, and ours. This is a very human story from a different era, when women had not long begun their quest for equality and won the vote. They were on the front line of social change as well as war, and the hurdles they had to overcome and the price they paid, personally and professionally, make them a unique group in Anzac history. Profoundly moving. ‘The Other Anzac’s,’ is story of extraordinary compassion and courage shown by a group of Australian and New Zealand women whose contribution to the Anzac legend has barely been recognized in history. Peter Rees has changed our understanding of that history forever. ”


Book 7: ‘Soldiers’ Songs and Slang of the Great War,’ by Martin Pegler

Look forward to a few bits of trench slang coming up on the page!

You’d be surprised how much of our slang has come from the Great War, here’s a great way to learn some of the fun and frightening terms they used. I chose this book for my last day in the competition because it emphasises two things that I feel are important to remember about the war, humour and the horror. The fact that these men were still able to make jokes and satire their situation is a testament to their character. This is one of the most admirable things about our ancestors and helps us connect with them on a more human level. When their sufferings are described in dark and ironic humour we get to see more about what kind of people they were.

“A celebration of cheerful determination in the face of appalling adversity Soldiers”, ‘Songs and Slang of the Great War’, reveals the bawdy and satiric sense of humour of the Tommy in the trenches. Published to coincide with the centenary of the First World War, this collection of rousing marching songs, cheering ditties, evocative ‘sing-alongs’ and complete diction of soldiers’ slang reveals the best of British and Allied humour of the period. Wonderfully illustrated with Punch cartoons, posters and the soldiers’ own Wipers Times, this nostalgic book will not only delight but also give a real sense of daily life amidst the mud and blood of the trenches for American, Canadian, Australian and British soldiers.” – The blurb on the back


Book 8: ‘The Obscure Heroes of Liberty’ by Dr. Kenneth M. Baker

When putting together the new reading list, it was immediately clear that Kenneth’s book had to start us off. From it’s sensitive and academic approach to relatively untrodden ground in the history of the Great War, this book tells the tale of the Belgian resistance movements. We were also very lucky to promote Baker’s book launch last year at the Auckland War Memorial Museum.

A story that most certainly deserved the recognition that Dr. Baker ably provides in this novel, with the names of as many of the resistance members as he could find included; to honour their memory. Considering that this people were actively trying to hide their identities, it is certainly a tremendous scholarly and investigative achievement.

With over 1,100 Belgians being involved, both men and women, the Belgian resistance was responsible for evacuating many British and French servicemen out of occupied Belgium and for collecting valuable intelligence for the Entente’s war effort. This book most certainly deserves it’s place in your library.

If you’d like to buy the book directly from Dr Kenneth Baker, follow this link: https://www.theobscureheroes.com/buy-the-book-copy?


Book 9: ‘The First World War’ by Gary Sheffield

A visually impressive book, taking full advantage of the Imperial War Museums’ photographic collections. Besides being an incredibly broad book in it’s coverage of the war from the eastern Front, to Romania, to Africa to Ireland and the entire panorama of the Western Front; the most compelling parts of this book are the documents included. A number of period letters and maps are included. These personal accounts and official orders tell the story of the great war in fascinating detail and include many famous and rare articles including the handwritten draft of Haig’s famous, ‘Backs to the Wall,’ address.

Many original maps produced for the book are included, these shed further light on the movements of vast armies and help simplify key ideas such as the Schlieffen plan. Most definitely a, ‘must have,’ for anyone wishing to gain a good understanding of the entire War with just one book. Being that this book is so broad in it’s coverage, it can’t delve into all the details of the various actions of the war but in doing so, it inspires further research.


Book 10: ‘Good Sons’ by Greg Hall

With a huge number of histories already covered on our list; it is about time for a historical fiction. A novel by our very own Greg Hall, ‘Good Sons,’ captures the emotional, empathetic connection that draws so many of us to the history of the Great War. Written from the perspective of the soldiers, ‘Good Sons,’ serves to foster that missing link between us and them and opens readers up to the thoughts of the men caught up in the quagmire of war. Chapters cleverly begin with the use of newspaper articles in the local Oamaru based paper which provides an interesting juxtaposition between reportage and the experiences of our characters Tom, Robert and Frank. What makes the novel particularly appealing is the way in which the soldiers are humanised rather than deified. They’re neither statistics nor stoic marble monuments, they are believable people. Beginning with a verse from Owen’s, ‘Dulce et Decorum Est,’ sets a wry and dark tone that should quickly dispel any notions of patriotic fervour and adventure. Yet, our characters begin in Chapter 1 with a familiar innocence that contrasts with the inevitability of the bleak, prescient prologue which is set later highlighting the diversity between perception and the reality in the Great War.


Book 11: ‘Civilian into Soldier’ by John A. Lee

This is New Zealand’s, ‘All Quiet on the Western Front,’ written by Distinguished Conduct Medal (DCM) recipient John A. Lee, we follow the experiences of the fictionalised extension of the author, Private John Guy. This book was released in 1937 and a sign of things to come again; we were recommended this book by Jeff Lynex on the last Reading list. The author himself is as interesting as the book and was in his time, a political force in NZ. Lee received his DCM for capturing a machine gun post during the Battle of Messines. Set on the Western Front, it follows the tense back and forth action that occurred during the battles the author knew well.

Lee was a well known and somewhat charismatic orator and writer, despite the loss of part of his left arm. He was the MP for East Auckland and fought a number of political battles upon his return from the war. After publishing this book, Lee continued to write, often on the subject of socialism with which he identified. Lee made an unsuccessful bid for the leadership of the labour party in his time due to the then Prime Minister M.J. Savage believing his views to be too extreme. Lee’s literary attack against the terminally ill Savage were the death knell of his political career—which had included such achievements as his instrumental part to play in Labour’s State Housing scheme. Certainly, an interesting character to look into and one of New Zealand’s most divisive political figures.


Book 12: ‘Dark Journey’ by Glyn Harper

We’ve previously featured, ‘Massacre at Passchendaele,’ by Glyn Harper, the Passchendaele Society’s—and once the New Zealand Army’s—official historian. However, at the recommendation of Bruce Reid on the previous reading list, I tracked down this history from Harper as well. ‘Dark Journey,’ is a revision and continuation of Harper’s previous work that spans the Western Front.

Following the actions of NZ’s major battles in this theatre of the war, Harper chronicles the contributions of New Zealand soldiers and notes interesting details along the way such as the exploits of Victoria Cross recipients. In this book, the third battle of the Somme, Passchendaele and the Spring Offensive are expanded upon in grand detail. You’ll find few other efforts that match Harper’s attention to detail as he plots the course of the conflict throughout the dark journey our soldiers undertook to eventual victory. This is one for the history buffs with years of research between the pages.


Book 13: ‘Fearless’ by Adam Claasen

This surprising book records the untold and often unrecognised tale of NZ’s involvement in aviation leading up to and during the Great War. For those with an interest in the development of flight in NZ, this book is unmissable. Shedding light on the unfamiliar actions of many flying Kiwis, ‘Fearless,’ spans the entire panorama of their perilous struggles occurring above the scenes of some of mankind’s greatest battles. From the Western Front and the North Sea, to Africa and above London; this book holds many an untold tale.

A number of tense stories are told in Claasen’s exciting prose with accompanying photographs as he tells of New Zealand pilots attacking Zeppelins, harassing German supply lines near Ypres or participating in the large and choreographed aerial actions of 1918. A holistic account, ‘Fearless,’ sets about describing the airmen’s way of life and occupying diversions when not otherwise employed in the war effort along with the subtle differences between the bored airman and the board soldier. Be the story taking above the pyramids of Giza, Gallipoli or the skies of the Western Front; Claasen’s account is exhaustive and is a time-consuming but rewarding read. It had to be a long story being that New Zealanders were often present at some of aviation’s seminal moments and took part in a number of daring acts of aerial courage that have been largely overlooked. Certainly, worth picking up for those interest in NZ’s aviation history and in the aerial combat of the Great War.


Book 14: ‘The Good Soldier’ by Gary Mead

Butcher Haig or one of the most experienced and innovative commanders in the West? Field Marshall Haig has been called a great many things and it is about time we had a discussion about him. This book broaches that discussion with the aim of finding out who the man behind the widespread condemnation and post-revisionist praise. In this book, you’ll go back to the beginning with Haig’s childhood and the inception of his military career during the Victorian era. Haig is a curious individual that saw himself very much as a soldier in much the same way as the Duke of wellington did; without actually being one. If you happen to have seen an image (or maybe the real article) of Haig’s grave, you’ll likely notice that is the same as the Commonwealth War Graves Commission’s regular fare for all the British soldiers of the Great War. Ironically, we rarely ever hear of Haig’s own opinions on his military career and the epitaph on his grave, ‘He trusted in God and tried to do the right,’ is an interesting piece of the puzzle—more of which Mead reveals in the book.

For one who sent a great many of them into death and dismemberment, it is fascinatingly acknowledged in, ‘The Good Soldier,’ that Haig did many things for Great War veterans’ organisations following 1918. Haig provides a complicated character study being that he came from an incredibly wealthy, career military Victorian background, yet found himself commanding a largely volunteer or conscripted army during mankind’s first industrial war. Being that Haig did little in the way of denying or countering the many concentrated condemnations of his military career post-war, it is important that we try to understand the man himself to gain more insight in order to make an informed decision about our opinions of him.

What are your opinions on Haig? Have you read the book? Perhaps it will change your mind one way or the other, the Haig debate is most certainly an important one in the history of the Great War and I’m sure it will make for some good discussion in the comments section.


Book 15: ‘In Flanders Fields’ by Linda Granfield and Janet Wilson

It’s often a tough topic to bring up with the children, but we are committed to educating future generations about the legacy of the Battle of Passchendaele and the Great War. As such, here’s quite a relevant one for the kids, which tells the story behind the poem they may have heard at commemorations you may have taken them too. ‘In Flander’s Fields : The Story of the Poem by John McCrae,’ comes recommended to us by Elise Hansen.

This book integrates facts about the war with the lines of the poem itself and holds true to the charges in McCrae’s verse. It follows the events that brought McCrae to pen the poem we all know well and does so in a very straightforward manner accompanied by impressive illustrations. It has large and simple text and even describes why the poppy has become an international symbol of remembrance. Well worth picking up, if you can track down the 2015 anniversary version which has a portrait of John McCrae on the front, you’ll be treated to a couple more illustrations. It’s less about the wider war and more about the poem so it will likely raise some questions that may encourage your children to learn more.


Book 16: ‘For King and Other Countries’ by Glyn Harper

Today we are very pleased to bring you a review of Passchendaele Society historian, Glyn Harper’s new book, ‘For King and Other Countries.’ Harper is one of New Zealand’s most accomplished and published military historians, with a fascinating outlook that comes from his own military service—which intertwined with his passion for history—as Harper was previously engaged as the NZ Army’s official historian. We are very lucky to have Glyn Harper as a part of our Passchendaele Society and are very grateful that he sent us a review copy of this fascinating new history. Glyn Harper’s previous work has often tackled some of the most critical moments in New Zealand’s experiences of the Great War such as the Somme or Passchendaele, yet with his latest book, Harper delves into what at first may seem an obscure topic. However, with his attention to detail and deft ability to weave together a narrative, Harper draws on some fascinating and untold stories and breaks new ground in NZ’s First World War scholarship.

With, ‘For King and Other Countries,’ we see the globe spanning stories of heroes and rascals related in Harper’s narrative tone. This book is more an anthology of the personal stories of Kiwis serving abroad than a general overview, though it does provide a series of maps, a roll of honour and a full list of references as any good history ought to. ‘For King and Other Countries,’ emphasises the true scale and global nature of the Great War and the many lives it changed forever. What may to some readers have seemed an unimportant or obscure topic, quickly develops into a collection of some of the most fascinating stories of the Great War that goes a long way in ensuring these New Zealanders are remembered. From New Zealanders fighting in the Indian Army or Gurkha rifles to the British Army or Australian Imperial Force or even for the German Empire—this is truly a unique collection of tales. It is a beautifully illustrated, hardcover book with many posters and studio photographs, adding to the reservoir of personality that this book has to offer. One of the most interesting pictures is of a Kiwi who served in the Indian Army, Kenneth Sinclair, resplendent in the Indian uniform of the 21st Frontier Force cavalry—complete with turban—this trooper was the first NZ born member of the Indian Army to be killed in action and is remembered through this ground breaking history.

Many of these men and women featured in the stories that Harper tells are decorated heroes. There are a number of notable examples of heroism from the four VC recipients and others such as Sister Ethel Mary Lewis, a nurse worked in hospitals on the Western Front, in Serbia and in the UK or James Waddell who served in the French Foreign Legion and won the Croix de Guerre and Legion d’honneur with seven palms. Not all were heroic, some were rascals and ne’er-do-wells such as James Glover who enlisted in the Australian Imperial Force no less than eight times—a record breaker at least. He was discharged for having been discovered to be a convicted criminal in New Zealand and after three more enlistments in Australia, he deserted his fourth posting. When Glover finally left for overseas service, he was arrested for drunken misbehaviour yet despite all of this, Glover was still awarded his Victory and British War Medals. It is these stories—which are full of character—that will win, ‘For King and Other Countries,’ a place in your library for it is through these stories of extraordinary Kiwis in extraordinary circumstances, that we can better understand the world they lived in and ensure that we remember them. It is great to see more histories being published lately that seek to fill in the gaps of our memories and broaden our remembrance to the often unsung heroes of the war, or even those that weren’t so heroic. ‘For King and Other Countries,’ by Glyn Harper along with, ‘The Obscure Heroes of Liberty,’ by Dr. Kenneth M. Baker and a number of other histories, are a part of an effort to ensure that we remember them all, by making us aware of the global scale of New Zealand’s involvement in the Great War.